China produces as much coal as it consumes See Figure 2. The country is not dependent on the imports; nevertheless, it should look for new solutions based on different energy sources so as to decrease the deteriorating effects of the air pollution. Asligul Aktas Author. Add to cart. Figure 1: Chinese coal consumption compared with the rest of the world Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten Source: The Oil Drum: Europe, China produces as much coal as it consumes See Figure 2.
Sign in to write a comment. Read the ebook. The Conflic In addition it is pointed out that economic and environmental issues are two important but not absolute conditions for ensuring a sustainable development. A third dimension, the social dimension, has also to be accounted for because humans are integral parts of ecosystems. Humans and ecosphere are partners in ensuring a good quality of life. It follows that protecting natural resources, their composition, structure, and functions, is protecting humans and life on earth.
Finally, it is argued that as not all of these objectives can be maximized, it is important that trade-offs among them are analysed and made clear and that any decision-making focusing on one or two of these dimensions may not lead to sustainable development.
Considerable work has also been undertaken to analyse the interactions between some social aspects and natural resources depletion  , though more investigation is still required in this area. Further investigation is also needed to understand and measure the interactions occurring simultaneously between the three dimensions.
As a result of this work, decision-making in development planning activity has also undergone substantial changes in terms of both the general approach to decision-making and the analytical techniques and tools. Decentralized decision-making is often considered to be more effective in addressing environmental problems.
Economic growth doesn't create jobs, it destroys them
Chapter 2 concludes that though environmental problems are generally location-specific, there is no valid reason to assume that all related decisions should be taken at the local level. Even when geographical decentralization is advisable, this does not mean that decision-making at the various geographical levels are independent.
On the contrary, decentralization must be thought of as a network of a multitude of decision-making centres linked by the same vision for the future, which is usually established on the basis of strategies and plans prepared at the national or international levels. Therefore, governance arrangements that can cope with this level of complexity also need to be organized as multiple scales and linked effectively together. An example is provided by irrigation systems.
Economic Growth And Environmental Problems Essay - Words - BrightKite
It is not uncommon to find large irrigation systems at the local government or higher level with multi-level sub-systems, each with its own rules. Moreover, geographical decentralization does not necessarily require that institutional decentralization goes as far as devolution. Various combinations of forms of decentralization can be found to cope with environmental and natural resources management problems, depending upon the specific conditions.
A number of criteria have been suggested to help find the most effective forms of decentralization. It is argued that centralization and decentralization should not be considered antagonist conditions. In most countries an appropriate balance of centralization and decentralization is essential to the effective and efficient management of environmental problems. Not all functions can or should be financed and managed in a decentralized fashion. And even when national governments decentralize responsibilities, they often continue to play an important role in policy and supervisory functions.
They must create or maintain the enabling conditions that allow local units of administration or nongovernmental organizations to take on more responsibilities. Central ministries often have crucial roles in promoting and sustaining decentralization by developing appropriate and effective national policies and regulations for decentralization and by strengthening local institutional capacity to assume responsibility for new functions.
The role of the central and local government in decentralized decision-making is analysed in detail in Chapter 3. It is argued that proper and effective environmentally sustainable decision-making requires profound institutional and cultural change in the society. It entails that environmental concepts be incorporated in the values, attitudes, and behaviours at both society at any geographical or administrative unit and individual levels.
The government at any level can play an important role in this process through direct investments in the environmental sector, the creation of an incentive system able to guide private entrepreneurs towards a more sustainable use of natural resources, the design of more appropriate institutions or the re-organization of the existing ones. Also important to achieve the above changes is the adoption of a decision-making approach able to better account for the complexities of the environmental problems and of the sustainability concept.
That is, a decision-making framework able to place due importance on:. In Chapter 4, the stages of decision-making that deserve particular attention from the environmental point of view are reviewed.
Essay on The Relationship Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection
It is stressed that two conditions are of primary importance for a proper consideration of environmental problems in decision-making, namely well defined spatial units and information generation. It is also highlighted that participation plays an important role in the collection of the required information, as well as in the identification of objectives, planning of actions and monitoring.
The tools available to perform effective decision-making integrating environmental considerations are examined. It is argued that if the decision-making process may be a resource demanding both time and human resources and expensive activity, a number of tools exist, that can reduce the overall costs and which have already been widely used in decentralized planning. The integration of environmental concern in decision-making at the decentralized level is crucial and urgent if the negative trend in the stock of natural resources is to be reversed.
Economy-wide policies are beyond the control of district level administrations, thus they will not be addressed in this document. However, exchange rate, trade and fiscal policies have substantial influence on relative prices and incentives in the use of natural resources at the decentralized level.
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It is, therefore, important that decentralized level actions and policies aimed at achieving environmental and sustainability objectives be compatible and fit within the framework of the economy-wide policies. The tight relationships between national and local policies also entail that environmental objectives at the decentralized level cannot be achieved if environmental considerations are not incorporated in economy-wide policy decisions. In this section a number of policy tools available at the district level are discussed. These encompass command and control, economic and institutional instruments.
Sometimes also named regulatory measures, command and control instruments are generally aimed at reducing or minimizing the impact of human activities on the environment through restrictive laws, or at prohibiting certain activities. Therefore, they generally lead to some erosion of individual freedoms in the society.
However, as long as environmental degradation continues and options decrease, some form of prohibition and restriction will be necessary to control the access and use of declining renewable and non-renewable natural resources. Among the most widely used regulatory instruments to protect the environment are:. All these instruments can be easily used at the district level because they are often related to location-specific environmental problems and are not required to be uniform throughout the country.
These instruments are categorical in the sense that they leave individuals and enterprises with no choice but to comply with the existing regulations. Often they are associated with penalties and fines. In addition to the above instruments, property rights and land tenure systems are also regulatory measures that may help improve the management of natural resources. As Calabresi and Melamed pointed out, property rights can take the form of property rules, liability rules, or inalienable entitlements.
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Carlson et al. Ownership provides the owner with the right to use the resource. Exclusivity ensures that all costs and benefits will accrue only to the users. Transferability implies that property rights are tradable. Finally, enforcement is the condition for the property rights system to be effective. It must also be pointed out that property rights effectiveness will be higher if they are coupled with well developed markets.
However, in real life there are no pure private rights.
Exclusivity, which is the main distinction between a private property resource and an open access resource, is seldom respected because many activities produce externalities. In this case the exclusivity condition fails. Because of the difficulty to comply with all the above conditions, property rights systems are often complemented by other policy measures, such as standards, charges, taxes and so forth.
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On the other hand, shifting from a traditional tenure system to a private one may generate other externalities detrimental to the environment e. It is therefore important that property rights and land tenure measures be: i accompanied by other policies aimed at avoiding the possible environmental impacts, ii introduced gradually in order to leave time for creating awareness among land users and providing information about changes occurring in tenure arrangements. Some simple and basic rules for setting up an effective regulation framework at the district level are the following:.
Define precisely the criteria against which the outcomes of regulations will be measured to avoid situations of unreasonably stringent and cost-ineffective regulations;. Charges and taxes are aimed at reducing the use of products or activities that may have adverse effects on the environment and are based on the Polluter Pays Principle. Charges are usually related to the provision of a service e. Subsidies, on the contrary, are intended to promote the consumption of environmental-friendly products or activities e. Deposit refunds encourage potential polluters to dispose of harmful goods safely by placing a surcharge on the price of the good, which is reimbursed when it is safely disposed of e.
Tradable permits OECD, entail trading the right to pollute among potential polluters. In other words, potential polluters are allowed to buy and sell emission quotas within the limits of emission standards. With this mechanism, polluters who introduce less polluting processes economize on their quotas and are free to sell them to other polluters who cannot manage with their quotas . The choice of the most appropriate economic instrument depends on the characteristics of the environmental problem to be solved.
For example, deposit refund systems are better suited for products which can be reused, whereas emission charges should be preferred for stationary pollution sources and in situations where marginal abatement costs vary across polluters. However, some general criteria in the choice of the most appropriate policy measure can be identified. Following the suggestions of OECD , these are:. It implies adequate information, consultation, and phased implementation in order to leave the potential polluters the necessary time to adapt to the new situation.